• Western Grey Kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) foraging at Flinders Range National Park in South Australia
    Western Grey Kangaroo foraging at Flinders Range National Park in South Australia

Animal Taxonomy and Photo Album Collections

The estimated number of animal species on the planet is 8.7 to 15 million, but science has only identified around 1.6 million of these. My webpages feature images of free and unrestrained animals that I photographed in their natural or adopted habitat. I generally excluded photos of animals that depend on humans for food, such as those in captive zoo type environments.

Invertebrates

The invertebrate photo album feature animals that belong to phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods):
(a) Insecta (Insects).

Insecta (Insects)

Insecta (Insects) are the most diverse animals on the planet with over one million described species. These include around 180,000 Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths) and over 6,000 Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata). Other insects such as Ants, Bees, Crickets, Grasshoppers, Mayflies, Stick Insects, and True Bugs account for the rest.

The photo album features a small selection of images arranged in time-ordered evolutionary history groups:
(a) Mayflies, Dragonflies and Damselflies,
(b) Moths,
(c) Butterflies,
(d) Other Insects.

Vertebrates

The vertebrate photo album collections display the following animal classes placed in the phylum Chordata, subphyla Vertebrata:
(a) Reptilia (Reptiles),
(b) Mammalia (Mammals).

Reptilia (Reptiles) and Aves (Birds)

Class Reptilia (Reptiles) and Aves (Birds) share a common ancestor. Although Aves is part of Class Reptilia, my Bird Photo Albums feature in a dedicated top-level Birds section at the same level as animals.

The reptile database contains more than 10,000 species and 2,700 subspecies. My five time-ordered evolutionary history photo albums display a small selection of reptile images:
(a) Crocodiles, Turtles and Tortoises,
(b) Lizards, Skinks and Geckos,
(c) Iguanas (Land, Marine and Tropidurid),
(d) Iguanas (Agamids and Anoles),
(e) Snakes.

Mammalia (Mammals)

There are around 6,500 recognised mammal species. The ‘IUCN Red List 2020-2’ of Threatened Species lists 5899 while the Animal Diversity Web (ADW) 2013 and Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition 2005 database lists around 5,000 species.

The mammals’ photo album displays some images arranged in four time-ordered evolutionary history groups:
(a) Egg-laying and Marsupial Mammals,
(b) Colugo, Primates, Rabbits and Rodents,
(c) Cetaceans and Marine Carnivores,
(d) Land Carnivores, Ungulates and Bats.

 

High-level Classification and Photo Album Collections

The figure shows a simplified taxonomic diagram in time-ordered evolutionary history that illustrates the arrangement of a high-level classification of Animalia (Animals).

Following this classification arrangement, I have split the photo album collections into invertebrate and vertebrate groups:

Invertebrates contain the insect photo album.

Vertebrates contain the following photo albums:
(1) Reptilia (Reptiles),
(2) Aves (Birds),
(3) Mammalia (Mammals).

The figure shows a simplified taxonomic diagram that illustrates the arrangement of high-level Animalia classification
The figure shows a simplified taxonomic diagram that illustrates the arrangement of high-level Animalia classification

References and Bibliography: Online Resources

Animal Identification, Conservation and Classification
1. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. 2020. [Online] Available from http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 28-Jul-20].
2. Living National Treasures This site highlights those plants and animals whose survival depends solely on a single nation’s actions. (no date). [Online] Available from http://lntreasures.com/index.html [Accessed 04-Dec-20].
3. Marine Species Identification Portal (no date). [Online] Available from http://species-identification.org/index.php [Accessed 15-Aug-20].
4. iNaturalist.org. [Online] Available from https://www.inaturalist.org [Accessed 28-Jul-20].
5. Catalogue of Life (CoL). 2020. [Online] Available from http://www.catalogueoflife.org [Accessed 28-Jul-20]. Annual Checklist http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2019/ [Accessed 28-Jul-20].
6. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [Online] Available from https://www.itis.gov/ [Accessed 28-Jul-20].
Reptiles
7. The Reptile Database (2020). The database provides a catalogue of all living reptile species and their classification. [Online] Available from http://www.reptile-database.org/ [Accessed 28-Jul-20].
8. Wildherps. [Online] Available from http://www.wildherps.com [Accessed 04-Dec-20].
Mammals
9. Animal Diversity Web (ADW) (2013). An online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology at the University of Michigan. [Online] Available from http://animaldiversity.org/ [Accessed 28-Jul-20]. ADW Authorities [Online] Available from https://animaldiversity.org/animal_names/authorities/ [Accessed 28-Jul-20].
10. Wilson & Reader’s Mammal Species of the World (MSW3), 3rd edition [Online]. Available from https://www.departments.bucknell.edu/biology/resources/msw3/ [Accessed 28-Jul-20]. Bucknell University hosts it.
11. Mammal Society. [Online] Available from https://www.mammal.org.uk/ [Accessed 03-Oct-20].
Insects
12. learn about Butterflies. [Online] Available from https://www.learnaboutbutterflies.com/ [Accessed 03-Oct-20].
13. Odo-nutters. Odonata, Dragonflies and Damselflies. [Online] Available from https://www.odonata.org.uk/ [Accessed 15-Aug-20].
Regions
14. Amateur Entomologist’ Society (AES) 1997-2020. One of the UK’s leading organisations for people interested in insects. [Online] Available from https://www.amentsoc.org/ [Accessed 19-Dec-20].
15. Ecology Asia. [Online] Available from https://www.ecologyasia.com/index.htm / [Accessed 03-Oct-20].
16. Kangaroo Trail Fact Sheets. [Online] Available from http://www.rootourism.com/fact.htm [Accessed 13-Aug-20].
17. Singapore Bird Circle. [Online] Available from http://www.butterflycircle.com/ and http://checklist.butterflycircle.com/ [Accessed 03-Oct-20].

Bibliography: Online Resources

1. Catalogue of Life (CoL). 2020. [Online] Available from: http://www.catalogueoflife.org [Accessed 28-Jul-20]. Annual Checklist http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2019/ [Accessed 28-Jul-20].
2. Ecology Asia. [Online] Available from: https://www.ecologyasia.com/index.htm / [Accessed 03-Oct-20].
3. Encyclopaedia of Life (EOL). Global access to knowledge about life on Earth. [Online] Available from: http://eol.org/ [Accessed 07-Dec-20]. Hosted by Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History [Online] Available from: https://www.si.edu/ [Accessed 28-Jul-20].
4. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. [Online] Available from: https://www.gbif.org/. Explore Species http://www.gbif.org/species [Accessed 07-Dec-20].
5. iNaturalist.org. [Online] Available from: https://www.inaturalist.org [Accessed 05-Dec-20].
6. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [Online] Available from: https://www.itis.gov/ [Accessed 28-Jul-20].
7. Living National Treasures (no date). [Online] Available from: http://lntreasures.com/index.html [Accessed 04-Dec-20].
8. Kangaroo Trail Fact Sheets. [Online] Available from: http://www.rootourism.com/fact.htm [Accessed 13-Aug-20].
9. Mammal Society. [Online] Available from: https://www.mammal.org.uk/ [Accessed 03-Oct-20].
10. Marine Species Identification Portal (no date). [Online] Available from: http://species-identification.org/index.php [Accessed 15-Aug-20].
11. Odo-nutters. Odonata, Dragonflies and Damselflies. [Online] Available from: https://www.odonata.org.uk/ [Accessed 15-Aug-20].
12. Wildherps. [Online] Available from: http://www.wildherps.com [Accessed 04-Dec-20].

Bibliography: Printed Resources (Books)

Africa
1. Bowler, J. (2006). Wildlife of Seychelles. Old Basing, Hampshire: WILD Guides.

Australasia
1. Martin, S. (2010). Bradt Australian Wildlife: A Visitor’s Guide. Bradt Travel Guides.
2. Fitter, J. (2010). Field guide to the wildlife of New Zealand. London: Christopher Helm. (Reprint 2014).

South America
1. Fitter, J., Fitter, D., Hosking, D., Withers, M. and O’Dwyer, S. (2015). Wildlife of the Galápagos. 2nd ed. London: William Collins.
2. Swash, A. and Still, R. (2005). Birds, Mammals, & Reptiles of the Galápagos Islands. 2nd ed. London: Christopher Helm.